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THE ORIGIN OF CENTRAL ASIAN WHITE SHAMANISM
According to a Buryat myth in ancient times people were not acquainted with any religion, did not worship gods and did not offer them sacrifices. Such situation could not satisfy heavenly deities, so god turned his son into eagle and sent him to the earth. First human whom he met on earth was a woman. Having received from him a shamanic gift and a shamanic hereditary root udkha she became udagan – the first shamaness, priestess of a hearth. Etymologically the term goes back to the Old Turkic ot (ut) – “fire”. Male black shamanism kharyn shazhan closely related to the Lower World and it’s terrible lord Erlik-khan detached from that original female shamanism.
Parallel to the stated cults the cult of the Heavens (Tengri) and of the Earth and Water (ancient Turkic Yer-Sub, Buryat Gazar-Uhan) become widely spread in southern steppe and forest-steppe regions of Siberia and Mongolia. This ancient polytheistic religion of Central Asia can be called Tengrism, or conditionally, “white shamanism”.
Contemporary Mongol-Buryat term böö goes back to the Middle-Mongolian buge, beki. At the time of Chingis-khan the first to be honoured this highest title (order) was Usun, the oldest representative of the golden kin who wore white clothes, rode a white horse and at the court receptions occupied a higher seat than the emperor himself.
The religious term tëŋri with the meanings “heavens” and “god”, and the term tëŋriči – “priest, servant of god” were in wide use among ancient Turks and were noted in the Orkhon runic inscriptions (5th -8th centuries AD). Long before that time in the 3rd century BC the term tëŋri (chengli – in Chinese transcript) existed among the Hunns. This fact allows us to believe that Tengrian religion was not created by aborigine Proto-Turkic-Mongolian ethnoses. It was brouhgt to Central Asia long ago from somewhere else. By whom, when and from where?
The earliest worshippers of the Heaven-god (Tengri) were Sumerians. During archaeological excavations in ancient Ur in lower Mesopotamia (middle of the 3rd millenium BC) a golden head of the bearded bull with a blue lapis lazuli sickle moon inlaid in its forehead was found under the ruins of the temple devoted to the god of the Moon Nanna. Nanna sometimes revealed himself in the image of a bearded wild bull, and his spouse Ningal – in the image of a cow. At approximately the same time in the 3rd millennium BC in the south-east of Middle Asia proto-urban civilization started to emerge. One of the most significant monuments of that civilization is the Altyn-Depe barrow dated back to 2300-1900 BC. In the centre of the barrow there was a grand temple complex devoted to the god of the Moon. There in a chief priest's tomb a golden head of the bull with a blue turquoise crescent moon inlaid in its forehead, symbolising the supreme lunar god-creator was found. Semantic, stylistic and cult closeness of the stated sculptures is beyong question. Chronologically the head from Ur precedes the one from Altyn Depe. Heaven-god also known as Moon-god in the shape of a bull was called dingir. The Hurrians subsequently borrowed the cult of the god Dingir from the Sumerians. It most probably took place in the 18th-6th centuries BC, when the city-state of the Ur dinasty fell under the attacks of Elamites and Amorites and became subject to Babilonian kingdom. A part of the Sumerian population due to the defeat (and probably earlier) migrated from lower Mesopotamia to the north-west up to central and upper Mesopotamia, where it had close and prolonged contacts and consequently mixed with the Hurrians.
         At the end of the 3rd – beginning of the 2nd milennium BC a number of independent Hurrian states existed in upper Mesopotamia, in Zaba and Diyala basins. In 16th-13th centuries BC a large and powerful Hurrian state Mitanni came into being there. Over several centuries the state of Mitanni was waging constant and violent wars against the Hittites, Syrians, Assyro-Babilonians, Egiptians and others. Beginning with the 2nd millennium BC warlike Indo-European Aryan tribes from the north Black sea and Caspian steppes started to penetrate to and settle in those Hurrian-speaking areas and in the state of Mitanni. They brought with them the cults of Indo-Iranian gods Indra, Varuna, Mitra, Nasatya and others.
In the 13th century BC the kingdom of Mitanni was defeated by the Assyrians and Aramaics and became subject to Assyria. As a result, a significant part of Hurrian-Mitannian armies headed by the chariot Aryan aristocracy (Marianni) left Middle East and migrated eastward where, having skirted the Caspian sea in the north (and maybe partially in the south), they moved to Central Asia, north-west China and South Siberia where, in the 12th -9th centuries BC, they created vivid Karasuk culture and the number of other Karasuk like archaeological cultures of the 8th-3rd centuries BC, including the Deer-stone culture of Mongolia and the Transbaikal region. Ancient tribes that created it where nomadic cattle breeders, mainly Europoids who took part in the ethnic and cultural formation of some modern peoples of Central Asia and Siberia, including the Buryats and Yakuts.
Every year at the beginning of summer the nomads would gather at the sacred rocks where, under the guidance of their white shamans tëŋriči, they performed rites devoted to the god of Heaven Tengri and the goddess of Earth and Water Yer-Sub. They would kill well-fed horses, offer sacrifices and feast on kumys – a sacred beverage from mare’s milk. They would hew the images of their deities on those sacred rocks. During that epoche a great number of rock paintings appeared in the steppes and forest-steppes of south Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, the Cis- and Transbaikal region. Among them are the numerous images of war chariots of Middle Eastern type (picture 1, found in western Mongolia and dates back to the middle of the 1st millennium BC), and the images of fantastic “lunar headed”, often phallic anthropomorphous beings, hewn or painted in raddle on the rocks throughout that entire vast region (picture 2, Khovd Somon, western Mongolia).
       The Buryats called their supreme god-creator and thunderer Aia, Yakuts – Aiyy, Finns, Estonians and Sami of Norway and the Kolsky peninsula – Aije. The theonym is of Indo-European origin and goes back to the ancient, now dead Anatolian languages of Asia Minor: Hittite-Luwian and Tokharian where the word ai meant “to make”, “to create”. The god Aia is a brother of Indian Indra, Greek Zeus, Slavic Perun and Scandinaviam Thor. In my opinion, it is Aia who is portrayed in the above image (picture 2). His attributes bear witness to the fact. His male copulative organ (phallus), a bow and arrow with an unnaturally huge arrow-head are characteristic of the thunderer, whereas war ax shows him as the god-warrior and the patron of warriors, and a helmet in the shape of the crescent moon – as the supreme lunar god-creator. Buryats-shamanists used to worship the moon as their god-creator and forefather hara esege (“Moon-father”), and the sun as their original mother Naran ehe (“Sun-mother”). Moreover, in all Turkic languages the moon is called ai, i.e. “the creator”. One more image of a lunar-headed god holding a club in his hands is hewn on the rock Sagaan-zaba on the west shore of Baikal. It is the same god-creator and thunderer, brother of Scandinavian Thor. Thor was believed to be a lunar god. The object that Baikal Thor is holding is undoubtedly his famous hammer Mjöllnir (picture 3). Thor’s mother was the goddess of Earth Yorth. The name of the goddess is still preserved among the Buryats. On the Baikal shore not far from the rock Sagaan-zaba on a flat country there is a hill Yord. It is famous for the grandious ritual games Yordyn naadan, which the Buryats, several thousand in number, used to hold at its foot every year at the beginning of summer. Not far from that hill there is another sacred mountain Aia, named after the god Aia. The most famous and great white shamans would gather on that mountain and sacrifice to Aia. Then they would come to the hill Yord and have a universal ritual feast and, afterwards, mass holiday games and round dances around the sacred hill, which lasted six days.
       The word Yord is not etymologized in Turkic-Mongolian and Ural-Altaic languages. In Scandinavian mythology Yorth (Old-Icelandic Iorð – “earth”) is the goddess of Earth, a spouse of the supreme god-creator Odin and a mother of the god of thunder, storm and fertility Thor. As I stated above, the epithet of the Indo-European lunar god-creator aia (ai), (hieroglyphic Hittite aia) was probably borrowed in the ancient times together with the cult of that great god-creator by the Proto-Turkic tribes. Since then the word ai became the name of the moon among all Turkic peoples of Eurasia. The ancient Proto-Turkic tribes also borrowed from the Indo-Europeans the cult of the Great Goddess-Mother together with her name Yord, which in modern Turkic languages sounds as yer and means “earth”.
       All aforesaid supports our concept of a foreign character of a highly developped politheistic religion Tengrism, which the peoples of Central Asia call “white shamanism”. It came to the region in the late Bronze – early Iron Age with the ancient migrants from the far SouthWest, warlike nomadic cattle-breeders Indo-Iranians and Indo-Aryans. Over three thousand years this ancient alien religion adopted by the aborigine tribes and peoples resistantly functions in these far-away corners of Turkic-Mongolian oikumena,among the Buryats, Turks of Sayano-Altai and Yakuts. 
 

Д-Н. С. Дугаров, доктор исторических наук, профессор

Категория: Шаманизм | Добавил: Faremind (20.03.2009)
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